Tag Archive: Celtic abstract art


 

“Nature is not only all that is visible to the eye, it also includes the inner pictures of the soul ”

(Edvard Munch)

 

 

 

With the defeat of Antigonus Monopthalmus and Demetrius Poliorcetes at Ipsus, vast territories were divided among the three victors…

 

Full Article:

https://www.academia.edu/32535241/METAMORPHOSIS_IN_GOLD_-_On_Posthumous_and_Celto-Scythian_Staters_of_the_Lysimachus_type_in_Crimea_and_the_Pontus_Region

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

UD: September 2016

 

 

 

intro illust.

 

“A dreamer is one who can only find his way by moonlight, and his punishment is that he sees the dawn before the rest of the world”.
(Oscar Wilde)

 

 

 

 

The process of metamorphosis in Celtic art in Thrace during the 3rd – 1st c. BC may best be observed in ‘barbarian imitations’ of the Macedonian Alexander type tetradrachms, which most clearly allow us to follow the chronological framework in which this occurred. On the original Macedonian prototype(s) (fig. 1/2) the images are idealized but constructively/anatomically precise, which reflects the glorification of physical beauty and strength in its idealized form – an approach typical of classical art…

 

Full Article:

 

https://www.academia.edu/9763573/BIRTH_OF_THE_ICON_-_The_Development_of_Celtic_Abstract_Iconic_Art_in_Thrace_3-1_c._BC_

 

 

fig. 7 1 c. bc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ARTOFREJ Ph.

NUMISMATIC ART

Pdf. Version:

ART OF REJECTION

 

Book on the Numismatic Art of the Coriosolites tribe by J. Hooker:

CelticImprovisations_Final

 

 

PLASTIC METAMORPHOSIS ART:

Triangular BULL (Pdf.)

MEZEK SYNDROME

TRIBULL

 

 

ZOOMORPHIC/ANTHROPOMORPHIC ART:

Zoo heads

Zoomorphic:

ZOOf

Anthropomorphic:

THE EVIL EYE

 

 

The Danube Torc:

TORC GS

Pdf:

DANUBE TORC (Pdf.)

 

 

TRISKELE/GOLDEN RATIO:

Trisk

Pdf.:

Triskele Golden

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mac Congail

 

 

 

 

UD: November 2016

 

 

 

abst

 

“The more horrifying the world becomes, the more art becomes abstract”.

(Paul Klee)

 

 

 

It is said that art mirrors life, and nowhere is this to be more clearly observed than in the art produced by the ‘barbarian’ tribes during the Scordisci Wars of the late 2nd / 1st c. BC.

 

Fig. 1 – Original Thasos AR tetradrachm, 164/160 BC.

Wreathed head of Dionysos right. HPAKΛEOYΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ ΘAΣIΩN, M inner left field, Herakles standing left, holding club and lion skin

 

 

 

The original Greek issues (fig. 1) depict typical examples of Hellenistic art – static and anatomically accurate images of Greek Gods, in this case Dionysos and Herakles. In the original Thasos images idealization of the subject is to be observed, a trait typical of Hellenistic art.

 In the second half of the 2nd c. BC the ‘barbarian’ tribes of today’s Bulgaria began to copy the Thasos coins. Early imitations (Fig. 2/3) remain very close to the Greek original, both in terms of imagery and the use of Greek inscriptions on the coins. Indeed, some of the early copies are so close to the originals that experts have great difficulty distinguishing them from the Hellenistic originals.

 

 

Fig. 2

 

 

 

Fig. 3

 

 

 

However, even at this early stage certain divergences from the originals are to be observed. These coins, while remaining true to the Greek iconography and continuing to use the Greek inscription/alphabet, begin to show clear distinguishing characteristics. For example, the head of Dionysos on the obverse begins to take on more masculine characteristics – square chin, larger nose, etc., which is at variance with the effeminate features of the Greek deity on the originals.

 

 

In the early decades of the 1st c. BC the real process of artistic metamorphosis begins. The subjects take on a more abstract aspect, and attempts to ‘copy’ the Hellenistic images and inscriptions are abandoned.

 

 

Fig. 4 – Celtic ‘Thasos type’ tetradrachma minted over that of the Roman Quaestor Aesillas (early 1st c. BC)

 

On Herakles’ left knee the Q (short for Quaestor – similar to English P) can be seen. There are also faint traces of Alexander’s hair locks at the metal disturbance in Dionysos’ cheek from the Roman original. The historical context in which these coins were produced – during a bitter struggle between the ‘barbarians’ and the Roman empire, should be borne in mind. From a psychological perspective the fact that the Celtic population in Thrace took the trouble to mint over the Roman/Hellenistic coins, instead of simply using the classical issues, is a clear political statement – a rejection of the classical images portrayed on the originals, and by extension the culture which had produced them (see: https://www.academia.edu/4963636/Plunder_Coinage_from_Thrace).

 

 

During this period new details also begin to appear, such as the case in fig. 5a, where the lion-skin of Herakles on the reverse of the Greek coin has now been transformed into a child in the Celtic image, or 5b where the Wheel of the Celtic Thunder God Taranis appears on the reverse of the coin.

 

 

Fig. 5a

 

thasos-taranis

Fig. 5b

 

 

 

1-thasos-meltdown-comparisosn

Reverse of an original Hellenistic issue (early 2nd c. BC), and Celtic issue from central Bulgaria from the late 1st c. BC

 

 

 

The brutal conflict with Rome during the final phases of the Scordisci Wars, and the accompanying misery of everyday life, is reflected in increasingly abstract and surreal images. A metamorphosis is to be observed in the images which reflect core Celtic religious iconography, foremost among them the image of the human headed serpent which has evolved on the obverse (fig. 6), or the appearance of the bird goddess, depicting the Badhbh Chatha – the Celtic Goddess of War (fig. 7/8). 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 6

 

 

 

 

Fig. 7

 

 

 

Fig. 8

 

 

At this stage the subjects on the reverse become even more schematic, depicting images such as the ‘Wicker Man’, or the clawed creature depicted in fig. 9; images which reflect the final phases of a brutal war – a conflict which shortly afterwards culminated in the destruction of the culture which produced them.

 

 

Fig. 9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*Text after Крусева Б. / Мак Конгал Б., Хората, които се превърна в слънце – Krusseva B. / Mac Congail B., The Men Who became the Sun – Barbarian Art and Religion on the Balkans. Plovdiv, 2010.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Art of Rejection

THE ART OF REJECTION *

 

 

 

 

The Celtic coinage based on the Philip II model raises a number of fundamental questions about our perception of non-classical European coinage and art in the pre-Roman period. It has hitherto been believed that the first Celtic coinage was produced in central Europe, based on Philip II coins brought there by Celtic mercenaries fighting for the Macedonian king. However, recent evidence from southeastern Europe (in particular Romania and Bulgaria**) throws serious doubt on this assumption.

 

 

 

 

 

Classical portrait of Philip II of Macedonia (left –  Glyptotek Collection of classical and modern art –Copenhagen) and portrait reconstruction by the University of Manchester (right – after Prag J., 2003)

 

 

 

 

Fig. 1 – Original Philip II tetradrachma (Le Rider 44.20)

 

 

 

 

The Celtic coins based on the Philip II model, and the images portrayed on them, have variously been defined as ‘illiterate copies of Hellenistic models’ or ‘barbarian attempts to produce classical images’. However, as illustrated below, when these ‘barbarian’ images are put into their proper historical and artistic context, a different picture begins to emerge.

Тhe artistic processes visible on Celtic coins from the Balkans during this period clearly illustrate that the abstract/surrealist images that developed were the result of a conscious and deliberate rejection of Greco-Roman art and experimentation with alternative artistic ideas that would not resurface in European art until the modern era.

 

 

 

  Some of the early Celtic imitations (Fig. 2), as in the case of the Thasos and Philip III models (see relevant sections), remain fairly close to the Hellenistic originals, even copying the Greek inscription. These coins clearly illustrate that Celtic craftsmen were perfectly capable of reproducing both classical images and inscriptions in the Greek alphabet, if they so desired. From the end of the 3rd c. BC, however, we witness a movement into ‘uncharted waters’ and the emergence of ‘barbarized’ images which marked Celtic coinage and numismatic art in the centuries that followed:

 

 

 

 

                           Fig. 2 – Early Celtic imitation (3rd c. BC) (Göbl 14/2)

 

 

 

 

Artistic evolution of Celtic (Philip II model) coinage from Romania / Bulgaria (3rd – 1st c. BC):

 

 

 

Process 1 (Lateral Vision):

 

                              Phase 1

 

 

Phase 2

 

Phase 3

 

 

 

 

 

Process 2 (Moonhead):

 

 

 

          Phase 1

 

 

            Phase 2 

 

 

       Phase 3

 

 

 

      Phase 4

 

 

 

 

Process 3 (The Butterfly):

 

 

 

 

                              Phase 1

 

 

 

   Phase 2

 

 

   Phase 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Process 4 (The Fat Man):

 

 

 

Phase  1

              

 

                                                                                                                                                                                      

  Phase 2

 

 

   Phase 3

 

 

Phase 4

 

 

 

 

Process 5 (Snakehead):

 

 

  Phase 1

 

 

  Phase 2

 

 

Phase 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Process 6 – (Deus ex Machina):

 

 

 

   Phase 1

 

 

 

Phase 2

 

 

  Phase 3

 

 

 

Phase 4

 

 

 

Phase 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Process 7 – (The Harprider):

 

 

 

Phase 1

 

 

    Phase 2

 

 

 

       Phase 3/a

 

 

Phase 3/b

 

 

 

    Phase 4

 

 

 

 

   Phase 5

 

 

 

 

The above images give us a unique insight into one of the most significant periods in European history – the twilight of the barbarian world. Most striking about them is the freedom of artistic expression that they portray. Artistic movements that we today call abstractionism, surrealism, and even post-modernism, are to be clearly recognized in these late Iron Age images.

 In the dogmatic political and cultural structures of the Roman and early-Christian periods such freedom of expression became unthinkable and, like the people who had created them, the artistic ideas born of the ‘barbarian’ imagination were swallowed up in the tide of history. However, in these coins we get a fleeting glance into a period when, for the first time, European art had entered the dark sphere of the human imagination, moving the focus from the superficiality of classical art to a deeper perception of reality.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* Illustrations and text after Mac Congail/Krusseva 2010 = Мак Конгал Б., Крусева Б. Хората, които се превърнаха в слънце – Ваpварските изкуство и религия на Балканите. Пловдив 2010. (The Men Who Became The Sun – Barbarian Art and Religion on the Balkans. Plovdiv 2010)

** On the distribution of these Philip II model Celtic coins in Bulgaria see Numismatic section 4.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mac Congail

 

 

DISTRIBUTION OF CELTIC COINAGE IN BULGARIA (3rd – 1st c. BC)

 

PART 1 – Philip III/ Cavaros model

 

 

The most discussed political entity established in the wake of the Celtic migration into the Balkans in the 4th/ 3rd c. BC is the ‘Kingdom of Tyle’ in today’s eastern Bulgaria. Following the assault on Delphi a body of Celts who had belonged to Brennos’ central army returned to Thrace under a leader called Comantorios and subsequently “…crushed the Thracians and turned the town of Tyle into a capital of their kingdom” (Poly. iv, 45-46). Celtic military power during this period would appear to have been considerable. A campaign in Thrace by the Syrian king Antiochus II “to take back his cities in Thrace” (Polybius, Historia universalis, xviii 51, 3-6), in the 250’s of the 3rd c. BC, was unsuccessful. Antiochus was accompanied during this campaign by two Thracian nobles – Teres and Dromichaetes (Polaen. Strat., iv, 16), probably with the intent of regaining the territory recently lost to them in Thrace. Few details are known of this conflict between the Syrian and his Thracian allies and the Celtic tribes in eastern Bulgaria except for the fact that the former Thracian capital at Seuthopolis (Kazanlak) was destroyed during the ensuing events. However, recent archaeological evidence clearly shows Celtic settlement in this area both before and after the destruction of the city. (See ‘The Golden Empire of Orpheus’ article – Archaeology section). Whether it was destroyed by the Syrian forces or the Celts themselves remains unclear. Shortly afterwards Antiochus and his army withdrew from Thrace. Another Syrian king, Antiochus Hierax, who landed in Thrace in 228/227 BC was killed by the Celts soon after his arrival. (Pompeius Trogus, Prologi XXVII)

 The coins of the kings of the Celtic ‘Tyle’ state in E. Bulgaria from the 3rd c. BC are concentrated in the area of today’s Bulgaria stretching from the Stranja mountains in the south to the Dobruja region in the north. The best known and recorded of these were issued by the Celtic leader Cavaros, but emissions of three other Celtic ‘kings’ (Orsoalt, Kersebaul and Lilarki) are also recorded in eastern Bulgaria from this period.(1)
Heavy concentrations of Cavaros coins (3rd c. BC – fig. 1/2) have been found in the Dalgopol area (Arkovna Peak, the villages of Asparukhovo and Sladka Voda), Provadia area (Provadia, Blaskovo, Bozvelijsko, Venchan, Kiten, Nenovo, Petrov Dol, and Chajka), the Vetreno municipality, Varna region (the villages of Nevsha and Neofit Rilski) and on the southern slopes of the Eastern Balkan range in the Burgas region (the villages of Sadievo, Cherna Mogila, Malka Polyana, Mirolyubovo, Ruen, Prosnik, Goritsa, Emona and Yabalchevo). Other Cavaros issues in this area of eastern Bulgaria have been found at the villages of Kosovo, Devnya, Bilka, as well as from Appolonia (Sozopol), Odessos (Varna) and Messambria (Nessebar) on the Black Sea coast. (2) To this one may add the Aitos-Karnobat area which connects this area of Bulgaria with the Sliven-Cabyle (Jambol) – Nova Zagora –Stara Zagora region which has produced a number of similar finds.(3) Of particular interest are several bronze issues of Cavaros, discovered in the Southern Dobruja region (Bozhurets, Septemvrijtsi and Sveti Nikola near Kavarna) which, along with recent discoveries of La Têne material from north eastern Bulgaria (see archaeology section), indicate that during this period (3rd c. BC) the Celtic state reached the southern bank of the Danube river.(4)

 

Fig. 1

Cavaros bronze; SNG BM 195; SNG Cop 1175; Cabyle mint.

 

 

Claims by some Bulgarian historians that the Celtic state in e. Bugaria during this period was ‘insignificant’(5) should be seen in their proper political context. The fact is that during the 3rd c. BC the Celts controlled the economic relations of Thrace with the Greek world.(6) The Hellenistic city of Cabyle (Jambol) continued to flourish under Cavaros and at least one of the Pontic harbors south of Burgas Bay was certainly under direct Celtic control.(7) The monetary policy of Cavaros followed those of many other ‘Hellenistic’ rulers and Cavaros’ silver tetradrachms based on those of Philip III Arrhidaeus (fig. 2) were accepted as pan-Mediterranean currency.(8)
The Hellenistic nature of the Celtic state in today’s eastern Bulgaria was a unique experiment. From a numismatic perspective it produced coinage based closely on Hellenistic models bearing the names of the Celtic ‘kings’ inscribed in Greek. The Hellenistic nature of the coinage and their circulation together with coins of the Greek Black Sea colonies, particularly Messambria(9), clearly illustrates the Hellenophilic leanings of the Celtic king Cavaros, something also attested to in historical sources where he is referred to as ‘a friend of the Greeks’. Ironically, it was probably the Hellenophilic nature of Cavaros’ state which led to its collapse.(10)

 

Fig. 2


Cavaros Silver Tetradrachma minted in Cabyle (Jambol) (225-215 BC)(11)

 

 

 

According to Bulgarian historians, the collapse of the ‘Tyle’ state at the end of the 3rd c. BC marked the end of all Celtic presence on the territory of today’s Bulgaria. This version of history completely contradicts the numismatic facts which clearly show that between the end of the 3rd c. BC and the imposition of Roman rule the only coinage produced by the native population in Bulgaria were actually Celtic coins based on Macedonian and Greek models.

From the 2nd c. BC a radical change is to be observed in Celtic coinage in Bulgaria. Attempts to ‘imitate’ Hellenistic models are largely abandoned, as is the use of the Greek alphabet. Instead we see the evolution of highly stylized/abstract issues which results in a unique abstract-iconic art style by the 1st c. BC. (fig. 3-5) In Bulgaria this process is to be observed not only on the Philip III / Cavaros coinage, but also on Celtic Philip II and Thasos ‘imitations’, as well as the Zaravetz lead and bronze issues from north-eastern Bulgaria and the Scordisci Strymon/Trident coins from western Bulgaria. (See sections 2-10)

The abstract Celtic coins from the II-I c. BC (fig. 3-5), evolved from the Philip III / Cavaros model, are found not only on the territory of the ‘Tyle’ state of the III c. BC, but also in today’s northern Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia and Hungary. Particularly high concentrations have been found in the Mutenia area of Romania and the Lovech and Russe areas of n. Bulgaria, indicating that these areas were the main centers of production of this type of Celtic coin.


In Bulgaria the first coins of this type were discovered in 1910 at Pirgovo (Russe district)(12) Why this hoard has still not been properly published, 101 years after its discovery, is a question for the relevant Bulgarian authorities. The same question may be posed about another massive hoard of Celtic coins, again containing Philip III ‘imitations’, discovered during the communist period in the same village (Map 1 # 1-2) (13) as well as other hoards of such Celtic coins found in the Russe region at Belyanovo (Zenovo district – Map 1 # 3)(14), Ostritza and Pepelina  (Both Dve Mogili district – Map 1 # 4, 30).(15)

Further hoards of Philip III model Celtic coins have been recorded from other parts of Bulgaria over the last century, none of which have not been made available for academic publication. These include examples from:

Glavatzi – (Krivodol district, Vratza region) (Map 1 # 6)(16)

Lometz – (Troyan district, Lovech region)(Map 1 # 7)(17)

Choba – (Brezovo district, Plovdiv region) (Map 1 #8)(18)

Chavdar – (Chavdar district, Sofia region)(Map 1 #9)(19)

Glojene – (Teteven district, Lovech region) (Map 1 # 10)(20)

Kamenovo – (Kubrat district, Razgrad region) (Map 1 # 11)(21)

Pordim – Pordim district, Pleven region (Map 1 #12)(22)

A further hoard discovered ‘Between Lovech and Vratza’ (Map 1 # 13)(23)

 

Fig. 3


Celtic Drachma (Philip III model) – II c. BC

 

 

In recent years further examples of the same coins have been recorded from Alexandrovo (Burgas reg. / map 1 # 14)(24), Altimir (Vratza reg. / map 1 #15)(25), Beloslav (Varna reg. / map 1 #16)(26), Burgas (map 1 #17)(27), Dolna Zlatnitza (Targovischte reg. / map 1 # 19)(28), Gorna Oryachovitza (Veliko Tarnovo reg. / map 1 #18)(29), Stara Zagora (map 1 #20)(30), Schumen (map 1 #21)(31), Lovech (map 1 #22)(32), Montana (map 1 # 23)(33), Radanovo (Veliko Tarnovo reg. / map 1 #24)(34), Razgrad (map 1 # 25)(35), Russe (map 1 #26)(36), Veliko Tarnovo (map 1 #27)(37), Samovodene (Veliko Tarnovo region / map 1 # 29)(38), Slana Bara (Vidin region / map 1 #31)(39), and Plovdiv ( Map 1 # 28).(40)

Particularly interesting is the recent publication of such coins from the Chirpan (Stara Zagora) area of Central Bulgaria (fig. 4-5/ Map 1 #29)(41) which illustrates that a ‘Celtic enclave’ existed in this area also into the Roman period.(42) The coins discovered during archaeological excavations at the Bratya Daskalovi site have been dated to circa 50 BC and were found together with other Celtic (Thasos model – see ‘Thasos’ section; on other coins from the Bratya Daskalovi site see Numismatics section 9 – ‘Plunder Coins’) issues, clearly indicating that the local coinage been produced and circulating in this region of Bulgaria at the time of the Roman conquest was Celtic ‘imitations’ of Macedonian and Greek models.

 

 

Fig. 4

Fig. 5

Fig. 4/5 – Celtic silver drachmas from Bratya Daskalovi, Chirpan (circa 50 BC)
(After Prokopov et al 2011)

 

 

It should be borne in mind that only one type of Celtic coinage is under discussion in this section – the Philip III/ Cavaros model. Other Celtic issues produced in Bulgaria during this period such as the Philip II and Thasos models, Zaravetz coins (n.e. Bulgaria) and the Strymon/Trident coins produced by the Scordisci/ Serdi in w. Bulgaria, will be discussed separately. What is most interesting about all this ‘barbarian’ coinage is not its wide geographical dispersion throughout the region, nor the unique art style presented on the coins. What is most significant is the fact that all the native coinage produced in Bulgaria from the end of the 3rd c. BC to the end of the 1st c. BC was produced by a local Celtic population who, according to Bulgarian historians, did not exist.

 

 

 

 

 Map 1

 

 

 

Map 2 (see also numismatics section 10 – ‘Shield Coins’)

 

 

* On other Celtic coinage from Bulgaria see numismatics sections 2-13

 

 

 

References

1. Mac Congail 2010 = Мак Конгал Б. и Крусева-Мак Конгал Б., Хората, които превърнаха в слънце. Варварските изкуство и религия на Балканите. (The Men Who Became The Sun: Barbarian Art and Religion on the Balkans). Plovdiv.
2. Lazarov 2010
3. Dimitrov 2010: 57; Lazarov 2003 = Лазаров Л. Тетрадрахма скордисков из крепости на вершине Арковна. In: Нумизматични проучвания и материали. Veliko Tarnovo. P. 40-52.; Mac Congail 2008:70 (attached Pdf.) with relevant references.
4. Lazarov 2010
5. Fol 1975: 192-194; Tacheva 1987: 32-33; see The Golden Empire of Orpheus – Archaeology section
6. Gerov 1967:33 = Геров Б. Проучвания върху западнотракийските земи през римско време II. – Годишник на Софийския университет. Факултет по западни филологии 61,1. р. 3-102; Domaradski 1984; Dimitrov 2010:51
7. Gerassimov (1958) The Alexandrine tetradrachms of Cabyle in Thrace. In: Centennial volume of the American Numismatic Society. New York. P. 273-277; Dimitrov 2010
8. Lazarov 2010; Dimitrov 2010. Some authors suggest that the Cavaros coins are based on those of Alexander III which differ little in terms of iconography from those of Philip III. This is a moot point.
9. Karaitov 1996: 11; 2000: 72-73 = Kарайтов И. (1996) Месамбрия и келтският цар Кавар. In: More 4, 9-10, 10-14; Kарайтов И. (2000) Месамбрия и владитетелите на крайбрежна Тракия (според нумизматични данни) – INMB 3, 66-81
10. Polybius, Universalis, iv 46.4; see Mac Congail 2008: 71-77
11. Price M., The Coinage in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. Vol. 1, Zurich-London. 1991. P. 175; Mac Congail 2008: 70
12. Dessewffy, G. (1910). Barbár pénzei, XVII:429-439; Gerassimov 1938 = Герасимов, Т. Колективни находки на монети през 1937 и 1938 г.: In: ИБАД 1938:455
13. Youroukova 1978 = Юрукова Й. (1978) Монетните находки, открити в България през 1975 и 1976 г. In: Археология, XX, 1978-4:58; Nedialkova 2010 = Недялкова T. Варваризирани подражания на антични монети в Тракия IV-I в.пр.н.е. (магистърска теза), Софийски университет „Св. Климент Охридски” Исторически факултет, Катедра Археология, София, 2010
14. A vessel containing 300 Celtic tetradrachmae – Philip III model – and 3 Celtic tetradrachmae of the Philip II model. (Pink, K. 1974: Tab. XII, 247-250 = Pink K., Die Münzprägung des Ostkelten. 1974; Gerasimov 1963 = Герасимов, Т. Съкровища от монети, намерени в България през 1960 и 1961. In: ИАИ 1963-26:257-270.
15. In the vicinity of the village a vessel was found containing 50 Celtic tetradrachmae – Philip III model (2nd – 1st c. BC) – Gerrasimov 1962 = Т. Герасимов. Съкровища от монети, открити в България през 1962 – В: ИБАИ, XXVII). In Rousse itself a hoard of 53 Celtic imitations of Philip II drachmae and 3 Philip III drachmae was found in the Sredna Kupa area (MAP # 5) in 1953 (Nedialkova 2010); At Pepelina 12 Celtic issues of this type were found – Preda C. Istoria monedei in Dacia preromana. Colectia Biblioteca Bancii Nationale 25. p. 219. Bucharest 1998.
16. GOTA (Göbl, R. 1973: Ostkeltischer Typenatlas. Braunschweig. 1973) type 574/575/576/577 It would seem that this was a very large hoard containing 244 coins – Gerrasimov 1937 = Герасимов T. Колективни находки на монети през 1934, 1935 и 1936 г. В: ИБАИ, XI, 1, 1937:320
17. In the vicinity of Lometz a large hoard of silver Celtic drachmae was uncovered at the beginning of the 20th century. The trove included over 100 Celtic silver drachmae (Alexander/Philip III type – GOTA – 574 (and variation) /575/576 and 577) as well as a gold ring with a gem. (Мушмов 1926, p. 324 = Noe, no. 622; Pink 1974, 87) Prokopov et al 2011: P. 49. n. 33 = Prokopov I., Paunov E., Filipova S. Coins and Coin Hoards from the excavation of two burial mounds near the village of Bratya Daskalovi, Stara Zagora Region. In: Тонкова М. (ed.) Thraco-Roman dynastic centre in the Chirpan heights area. Sofia 2011) (Map 1 #7)
18. 63 Celtic tetradrachmae – Philip III model (2nd – 1st c. BC) – (Gerassimov Т. 1962 = Герасимов T. Монетни съкровища, намерени в България през 1958 и 1959 г. In: ИАИ, 25, 1962:225-237.
19. GOTA – 574/575/576/577(LMC); Gerassimov 1934 = Т. Герасимов. Колективни находки на монети през 1933 и 1934 г. – In: ИБАИ, VIII, 1934:473
20. In the vicinity of the village a hoard of Celtic tetradrachmae has been found – Philip III model (2nd – 1st c. B.C.) – Youroukova 1978 = Й. Юрукова. Монетните находки, открити в България през 1973 и 1974 г. In: Археология, XX, 1978-2:72; Nedialkova 2010.
21. GOTA – 574/575/576/577 (LMC) – Gerasimov 1963 = Герасимов, Т. 1963б: Съкровища от монети, намерени в България през 1960 и 1961. In: ИАИ 1963-26:257-270.
22. Gerasimov 1962 = Т. Герасимов. Съкровища от монети, открити в България през 1962 – In: ИБАИ, XXVII.
23. According to Prokopov et al (2011) this find will be published ‘shortly’ in CCCHBulg.IV . Prokopov et al. 2011: 49 n. 33.
24. LMC. GOTA – 574/575/576/577 (LMC = Wendling E., Le Borgne de La Villandre J., L’Euroatlas des Monnaies Celtes, Chapitre II C – http://www.celtic-coin agora.com)
25. GOTA – 574/575/576/577 – LCM
26. Loc cit
27. Loc cit
28. Loc cit
29. Loc cit
30. Discovered in 1973. 16 examples apparently of the later highly abstract issues (I c. BC) – Youroukova 1978 = Й. Юрукова. Монетните находки, открити в България през 1973 и 1974 г. In : Археология, XX, 1978-2:72
31. Topalov 2001:121-122 = Topalov S. Contributions to the Study of the Coinage and History In the Lands of Eastern Thrace from the end of the 4th c. BC to the end of the 3rd c. BC. Sofia 2001
32. GOTA – 574/575/576/577. A massive find of these coins from nearby Lometz indicates that these were probably produced in the Lovech area. (LMC)
33. Loc cit
34. Loc cit
35  GOTA – 574/575/576/577 (LMC); Topalov op cit.
36. LMC
37. Topalov op. cit.

38. Preda 1998: 219

39. Thompson M. et al. An Inventory of Greek Coin Hoards. Vol. 1. Americam Numismatic Society (1973) p. 69. Hoard # 454
40. LMC
41. Prokopov I., Paunov E., Filipova S. Coins and Coin Hoards form the excavation of two burial mounds near the village of Bratya Daskalovi, Stara Zagora Region. In: Тонкова М. (ed.) Thraco-Roman dynastic centre in the Chirpan heights area. Sofia 2011.
P. 44-53; Map 1 # 29)
42. loc cit