DECEBALUS PER SCORILO – In the Name of the Father

UD: August 2016

 

 

 

 

 

Decebalus (originally Diurpaneus), is rightly remembered as the greatest of Dacian leaders, who led his peoples’ prolonged resistance to Rome, which would eventually lead to him making the ultimate sacrifice. The tragic death of this exceptional ruler in 106, after almost 20 years of struggle, marked the end of Dacian statehood.

 

 

 

Decebalus' suicide, from Trajan’s Column (Scene CXLV)
Decebalus’ suicide, from Trajan’s Column (Scene CXLV)

 

 

 

However, who was Decebalus, and where did he come from? An analysis of this leader’s name and ancestry reveals evidence which casts new light on Decebalus himself, and once again poses the question – who were the “Dacians”?

 

 

The first fact to consider is that the name Decebalus, besides sources referring to the Dacian leader, is recorded in a large number of inscriptions from the Roman period – from Italy (CIL 6, 25572 (Roma): Decibalus; AE 1954,83 (Roma): Decibal(us); AE 1989,299 (Asisium=Assisi, Umbria): Decibalo; AE 1945,35 (Ostia): Decibali; CIL 15,2797 (Roma): Deceb[alus]), Thrace (CIL 3,7477 (Durostorum=Silistria, Moesia Inf.): Decibalm; AE 1998, 01141: (Sacidava, Moes.Inf.): Decibali; CIL 3,7437 (from Lăžen near Nicopol): Decebali; IGLNovae nr.82 (Novae, Moesia Inf.): Decebalo), Macedonia (AE 1985, nr.721 (Philippi): Decebalu(m), Pannonia (CIL 3,4150 (Savaria=Szombathely, Pannonia Sup.): Decibalus), Gaul (1964, 144f (Blain, Lugdunensis): Decibal(us) 1964, 144f (Blain, Lugdunensis, Franţa): Decibal(us), and Britain (CIL 13,10013: Decibal(us), i.e. with the exception of the famous Dacian leader, all recorded examples of the name Decebalus come from outside Dacia.

 

 

Another fact to consider is that names ending in the element –balus occur only twice in the Balkans in the pre-Roman period. The first example is encountered in Cambaules, a Celtic chieftain who led a raid in Thrace at the beginning of the 3rd c. BC (Paus. X 19:5), and the second – Kersebaules, a king of the Celtic Tyle state in eastern Thrace in the first half of the 3rd c. BC. (cf. also Celtic : Άνδοβάλης, Άνδοννόβαλλος, etc. – Evans 1967: 147-148, and Balanus, Balarus, Balio etc. Holder AC 1 334-336; the first element in the name of Decebalus has long been attributed to the PIE *dekm- (‘ten’) (cf. Sanskrit daśabala); Cf. PC *dekam ‘ten’, Olr. deieh, MW deg, MBret. dek, MoBret. Deg; Matasovic 94). Thus, this ‘Dacian’ element occurs in the pre-Roman period in the region exclusively in the names of Celtic leaders.

 

 

 

a - kersi

Kersebaules Tetradrachma. Inscription: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΚΕΡΣΙΒΑΥΛΟΥ

(ca. 270 BC)

https://www.academia.edu/5420363/THE_TYLE_EXPERIMENT

 

 

 

 

 

In The Name Of The Father…

 

 

The key to the ethnic origin of Decebalus is to be found on the famous inscription on a large ceremonial vessel, discovered at Sarmizegetusa. This is the only ‘Dacian’ inscription, and reads:
“DECEBALUS PER SCORILO”
– meaning ‘Decebalus, son of Scorilo’  (Nandris 1976, Georgiev 1977, Duridanov 1985; Asenova 1999; Boïadjiev 2000).

 

 

 

DECESCOR insc.

The Decebalus per Scorilo inscription

 

The Decebalus inscription was stamped on a huge vase twenty-four inches (0.6 meter) high and forty-one inches (1 metre) across. It is stamped in mirror-writing, in the Latin alphabet.

 

 

 

In the case of the name of Decebalus’ father, Scorilo (Scorylo dux Dacorum – Front 1. 10.4, from which Iord. Get. Coryllus rex Gothorum – Detschew 1957:460; on the variant Scorus, see Mac Congail 2008), further examples of the name are found exclusively beyond Dacia. The first example comes from Kostolac in eastern Serbia, in the territory of the Celtic Scordisci (Scorilo – CIL 3, 14507), while in the second example (from Pannonia) (CIL 3, 2328) – Scorilo Ressati libertus – not only Scorilo, but also Ressatus, who was a potter of the Eravisci tribe (Maróti 1991), are both Celtic names (Holder AC 2, 1405).

Recent research by Romanian academics has found no evidence of a separate Dacian anthroponomastic system, i.e. distinct from Thracian and Celtic (Varga 2010), and the evidence outlined above indicates that the only ‘Dacian’ inscription is actually comprised of two names of Celtic origin, providing further proof that research into the ancient Thracian/Dacian language(s) since the communist period has systematically included Celtic data, logically rendering all such research invalid.

 

In the present context the linguistic evidence, chronological context, and spatial distribution of the names of both Decebalus, and his father Scorilo, clearly indicate that both were of Celtic (or Celto-Scythian/Bastarnae) origin, and is further proof that the concept of a separate ‘Dacian’ ethnicity and language is largely the product of 1970’s protochronism/nationalism.*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*On the political manipulation of Romanian (/Bulgarian) archaeology see:

https://www.academia.edu/27923462/On_Communism_Nationalism_and_Pseudoarchaeology_in_Romania_and_Bulgaria

On the use of linguistics in this process:

https://www.academia.edu/3292310/The_Thracian_Myth_-_Celtic_Personal_Names_in_Thrace

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Literature

Asenova, P. (1999). Bulgarian in Handbuch der Südosteuropa-Linguistik. Wiesbaden
Boïadjiev D. (2000) Les Relations Ethno-Linguistiques En Thrace Et En Mesie Pendant L’Epoque Romaine. Sofia
Du Nay A. (1996): The origins of the Rumanians: the early history of the Rumanian language, Buffalo
Duridanov I. (1985) Die Sprache der Thraker, Neuried: Hieronymus
Detschew D. (1957) Die thrakischen Sprachreste. ÖAW, Phil.- hist. Kl. Schriften der Balkankomission, Linguist. Abteilung XV. Wien
Duridanov I. (1997) Keltische Sprachspuren in Thrakien und Mösien. Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie. Band 49-50
Evans D.E. (1967) Gaulish Personal Names: A Study of some Continental Celtic Formations. Oxford
Felecan O. A Diachronic Excursion into the Anthroponymy of Eastern Romania. Philologica Jassyensia, An VI, Nr. 1 (11), 2010, p. 57–80
Georgiev V. (1977) Trakite i techniat ezik. Sofia. = Георгиев, Вл. 1977. Траките и техният език. София
Georgiev V. (1983) “Thrakish und Dakisch”, in: Temporini, Hildegard (ed.), Aufstieg und Niedergang der romischen Welt. Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung, 1148–1194, Berlin / New York
Holder A. (1896-1907). Alt-celtischer Sprachschatz, Bd. I-III – Nachdruck Graz 1961-1962
Mac Gonagle B. (2008) Thracian and Celtic Anthroponymy – A comparative study. In: Mac Congail B. Kingdoms of the Forgotten. Celtic expansion in south-eastern Europe and Asia-Minor – 4th – 3rd c. BC. Plovdiv. P. 131-163

Mac Gonagle B. (2012) https://www.academia.edu/3292310/The_Thracian_Myth_-_Celtic_Personal_Names_in_Thrace
Maróti É. (1991) A római kori pecsételt kerámia és a Resatus kérdés. Studia Comitatensia 21. 365-427
Nandris, J. (1976) The Dacian Iron Age A Comment in a European Context in Festschrift für Richard Pittioni zum siebzigsten Geburtstag. Wien
Varga R. (2010) The Military Peregrini of Dacia: Onomastical and Statistical Considerations. Analele Universităţii Creştine „Dimitrie Cantemir”, Bucureşti, Seria Istorie – Serie nouă, Anul 1, Nr. 4, 2010, p. 108-116

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mac Congail

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14 thoughts on “DECEBALUS PER SCORILO – In the Name of the Father

  1. “Scorilo Ressati libertus ” means: ” Scorilo free king ”
    Ressati=RESH – ATI = RESH= REX in Latia , and RASH in Sanskrite.
    DECEBALUS corect means DZECE – BALU in romanian language is = DZECE = ZECE = “TEN ”
    According to historian”Strabon ”
    Traco-Dacians are not celts .Burebista led a policy of conquest of new territories: in 60/59 BC, he attacked and vanquished the Celtic tribes of Boii and Taurisci, who dwelt along the Middle Danube and in what is now Slovakia. After 55 BC and probably before 48 BC, Burebista conquered the Black Sea shore, subjugating the Greek fortresses from Olbia to Apollonia, as well as the Danubian Plain all the way to the Balkans. Strabo also mentions the expeditions against a group of Celts who lived among the Thracians and Illyrians (probably the Scordisci).
    But Dacian language have many words similar to Celtic because Celtic language which migrated in the 7th century B.C. in Transylvania and Oltenia and southern Moldova.

    1. Burebista sent Deceneus to Egypt to learn the new Hellenic ways to become wise, and north be called Barbarians any longer. Almost all the Dacian names and words were changed into a Greek/Hellenic New language, that had it’s base/foundation in the Aramaic/Heber language bit more developed. This Dacian language was the same as the Scythian language. ( Flavius Lucianus Arianus) a Greek born, historian employed by the Roman empire as a general/historian, leading the Roman legions in the present day Moldova(both sides of the river Prut writes about how the Scythian people beingt the same as Dacian but called by different names by different “powers of the times”.
      Deceneus was a very powerful religious leader under Burebista and through this religious power Burebista was able to unite all the free Dacian people. Their borrowed god was “Moloch” an Assyrian god, same as the Baal of the Babylonians, with a Greek/Hellenic twist it became “xamolxes” to which they would sacrifice their oldest son through fire or impaled. Before this new god the people were acknowledging The real God of the Hebrews YHVH but they were mad at him forn not protecting them against their enemies, even though they considered Him a part time God and would journey to Jerusalem to pay homage to Him, but the people of Jerusalem were in fact bringing Moloch/Baal/ Astarte in the Holly Temple.
      When Duras/Durpaneus came to religious and political power he reunited the Dacian tribes under one new leader called “Dece-Baalus”. (Deceneus + Baal = Decebalus).
      The Romans occupied Jerusalem, so the Dacians waged war on this wickedp power that destroyed their spiritual place of worship (Jerusalem). Decebalus managed to get tribute from the Roman empire for more than 15 years, this weakened the Romans, but one of Decebalus ‘s disgruntled army leader switched sides, enlisted in the Roman army and became a general because he new Decebalus ‘s tactics, strategies, and weaknesses. His name is Traian “Trajan”.
      Decebalus never committed suicide, but as a religious/spiritual leader he believed that through death he could come back as a god and defeat the Romans and their traitor leader Trajan once and for all.
      Gatae = Greek; Dacian = Latin; Scythe = Assyrian; Thrace =Babylonian
      They all mean the same people with the same language.
      Geto-Thraco-Dacian people are the base for the majority of Europe including the Latin language which is in fact a dialect of those people.
      As they were perused by the Assyrian empire, later by the Babylonian empire, Greek empire, later fighting for Alexander the great as mercenaries and later the Roman empire they were spread by familiest throughout Europe developing into countries and languages of their own.
      But the one thing that links all of them is these 4 symbols that represented them for thousands of years. (Lion Oxen Eagle Man’s face). Representing North South East West.

  2. This is stupid, near moronic. Who the hell considered Dece- from Decebalus as being the numeral ten or tenth. „long been attributed” ..how long is that, ten seconds? :))

    In the first century before Christ, keltic tribes are destroyed by a huge thracian army of Byrebistas. Remanents fled to the west or are greatly diminished as political power. In what was later Dacia hardly any keltic trace are to be found, so no keltic names or upper eshalon are to be found. There is a science to descipher dead languages and what you fit toghether as a childish lego game is a farse.
    Kersobaules and Decebalus don’t contain the same themes, not even by a long shot. Have you heard of king Kersobleptes..entirely thracian name.
    Dekinais or Decinais could contain the same theme as Decebalus. What about the gentilic name dacian (dakoi), are they also translated as „ten”? Ten farts, ten donkeys, ten moons, what? :)))

    1. Yes. In fact, the Dacians were just Balkanic typed peoples the same as Thracians. This “Celtic” stuff is nonsensical. They just want every single European tribe to be Celts. Celts are simply some group that had their urheimat around Austria, and moved around from there. Apparently Germanic is really just Celtic as well.

      Really, most Thracian and Dacian finds put them closer to Greeks than to Celts.

  3. First of all the real name of Decebalus was Diurpaneus, decebalus its a surname or agnomen or nickname if u want:) taken after the first batle of Tapae.
    Second: seen u take as bibliografy atleast 1 book from a extremist hungaryan site, that said a lot

  4. I don’t have a problem with the notion of Dacians being Celts. I think it’s highly unlikely, but as far as I know, not entirely impossible. I wouldn’t mind it, anyway.
    On the other hand, I do have a problem with your 100% untrue statement that the idea of a Dacian ethnicity is a product of the 1970s protochronism. Actually, it’s a little older: true or not, this idea is as old as Herodotus. Also, you can find it in the work of virtually every Romanian historian/chronicler.
    Even I.C. Brătianu who was one of the few to hypothesize Celtic roots for Romanians, claimed in 1857 that they have Thracian-Celtic-Roman roots, so he viewed at least the Thracians as a distinct ethnicity and they are known to have been closely related to Dacians.

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